Er: YAG laser is a new kind of laser in the 1980s. When the doping concentration is high, the laser can get an output of 2.94 μm. Because the laser has a wavelength of 2.94 um, right at the absorption top of the water, it can be strongly absorbed by water particles. The mass fraction of water in organic cells and tissues is typically more than 70 percent.
Consequently, a 2.94 μm laser is an optimal option for laser biology applications. Using this band of laser can likewise stay clear of the devastation of other molecular bonds in the cell and also does not have huge thermal damages like carbon dioxide laser; Furthermore, the penetrating deepness of erbium laser in organic tissue is very shallow, as well as its mechanical, as well as thermal damage to the body, is really small. Therefore, the application and also advancement of Er: YAG laser have actually been paid much focus in medical circles at home and also abroad recently.
Er: YAG crystal
The laser system of Er: YAG is fairly complicated however can realize under particular conditions as a result of numerous power transfers
2.94 μm laser result. Its macro qualities are tiny one-way gain, high limit, and difficult to attain constant outcome; Nonetheless, due to the high doping concentration, it is challenging to create saturation so that it can obtain the laser pulse with huge energy.
Er3+: YAG crystal comes from the cubic crystal system, an encouraging solid laser product in the mid-infrared band, which can outcome laser of three wavelengths at area temperature level: 1.64 μm, 1.78 μm as well as 2.94 μm, amongst which 1.64 μm, as well as 1.78 μm, are in the risk-free band of human eyes, 2.94 μm remains in the hydroxyl absorption peak and also can be strongly soaked up by biological tissues, so it has a good application possibility in laser medicine, laser communication, laser distance measurement, and so on application.
The result wavelength of Er: YAG laser is 2.94 μm, which is precisely constant with the optimal of the water absorption range, and also the absorption coefficient is 13000cm-1, which is the greatest among existing medical lasers. It is a type of laser conveniently taken in by water particles and can attain a fantastic effect with small energy. The optical penetration depth corresponding to the absorption coefficient is 1μm; compared to other clinical lasers, the penetration depth is very superficial. This advantage is unparalleled to various other wavelengths and also can be made use of to perform exact cutting as well as soft tissue excision surgical procedures. For that reason, it is suitable for accurate medical areas such as ophthalmology and also blood vessel.
Er: YAG laser in cosmetic surgery, bone and tooth cutting, and various other applications have drawn in much focus.
Furthermore, Er: YAG laser is a really risk-free as well as practical laser source for clinical use because the damage to water-bearing cells is mechanical damage triggered by water evaporation, which does not leave melt marks, nor does it have the possible danger of gene mutation caused by damage to cell DNA comparable to the excimer laser.
In the last few years, the application of erbium-doped YAG laser in the clinical area has been paid a growing number of attention. With the maturity of Q-switching innovation, the trouble of Q-switching of Er: YAG laser has actually relapsed, and the modulated 2.94 μm Er: YAG laser, the pulse width is substantially reduced, the peak power is additionally enhanced, which better reduces the mechanical damage to the irradiated things surface, and the thermal damages is practically absolutely no. The side of the pulse trauma point is smooth, which is really suitable for different accuracy clinical areas.
Among all kinds of wavelength lasers, Er: YAG laser in the mid-infrared band has a wavelength of 2940nm, which takes place to be near the optimal of the water absorption curve and also the 2nd peak of the hydroxyapatite absorption curve.
It is easy to be taken in by water as well as hydroxyapatite, and also particularly easy to be soaked up by water to create high energy. Therefore, it can act on soft and also difficult tissues with different water components to generate cutting, ablating as well as grinding impacts as well as kill all type of germs in the cells at the same time. Therefore, it is a multi-functional laser widely made use of in numerous professional subspecialties of the oral cavity.
On top of that, Er: YAG laser has the shallowest tissue infiltration deepness, only 2μm in soft tissue, 5μm in enamel and 7μm in dentin, which has the advantages of exact treatment as well as minimal tissue damages in professional application. At the same time, the water cooling design makes the temperature increase caused by Er: YAG laser irradiation of soft and also tough cells surface no greater than 5 ℃, nearly no thermal damage, so the cells reaction after therapy is small, rapid healing, very suitable for oral minimally invasive therapy.
The 2.94 μm laser focus connects with water-saturated organic tissue. It is equivalent to instant heating of a limited volume in which the pressure increases as well as product (such as blood) flows out of the cut without thickening, a fancy some procedures. But it was this attribute that caused the advancement of the laser blood sampler. The impact is great. The discomfort is smaller than in acupuncture blood collection. The wound location is smaller, the healing is fast, no infection.